Safety tools are all kinds of special tools and utensils to prevent accidents such as electric shock, burns, falling, and falling, and ensure the personal safety of staff. tools.
- Classification of safety tools
Safety tools are mainly divided into four categories: electrical insulation tools, safety protection tools, safety warning signs, and other tools.
- Electrical insulating tools
Electrical insulating tools include high-voltage electroscopes, high-voltage insulating rods, insulating shoes (boots), insulating gloves, insulating pads, insulating clamps, insulating tables, insulating baffles, etc.
- Safety protection tools
Tools to protect workers from accidents, including protective glasses, hard hats, safety belts, waist ropes, insulating cloth, acid-resistant work clothes, acid-resistant gloves, gas masks, protective face shields, temporary barriers, barrier ropes (nets), and climbing Use ladders, foot buckles (iron shoes) to stand on foot boards, etc.
Electrical insulating tools and safety protection tools are divided into the following three parts according to their functions and functions:
(1) Basic insulation safety tools.
Basic insulation safety tools refer to tools whose dielectric strength can withstand the working voltage, can directly operate high-voltage electrical equipment, and contact or may contact live objects. For example, capacitive electroscope, insulating rod, insulating clapboard, insulating cover, nuclear phase device, portable short-circuit grounding wire, personal security grounding wire, etc.
(2) Auxiliary insulation safety tools.
Auxiliary insulation safety equipment means that the insulation strength cannot withstand the function of working voltage, and it is only used to strengthen the security function of basic insulation safety equipment to prevent damage to operators by contact voltage, step voltage and leakage current arc. Safety tools that belong to this category include: insulating gloves, insulating boots (shoes), insulating pads, insulating tables, insulating supplies, etc.
(3) General protective safety tools
General protective safety equipment (general protective equipment) refers to the equipment used to protect workers from accidents. Such as helmets, safety belts, insulating ladders, safety ropes, foot buckles, anti-static clothing (static induction protective clothing), anti-arc clothing, conductive shoes (anti-static shoes), safety self-locking device, speed difference automatic controller, protective glasses, Filter respirators, positive pressure fire-fighting air respirator, SF6 gas leak detector, oxygen tester, acid-resistant gloves, acid-resistant clothing and acid-resistant boots, etc.
- Safety warning signs
Safety warning signs include safety nets, safety fences, equipment signs, safety signs, etc. The safety warning signs are divided into six parts according to their functions:
(1) Prohibition sign: its meaning is a graphic sign that prohibits or stops people from pre-doing unsafe behavior, consisting of red. For example, “No closing, someone is working!” “No entry without permission” “No climbing, dangerous high voltage!” and so on.
(2) Warning sign: its meaning is a graphic sign that reminds people to pay attention to the surrounding environment to avoid possible danger. It consists of two colors of yellow and black. For example, “Stop, high voltage danger!” “Beware of electric shock”, “Beware of falling” and so on.
(3) Instruction signs: the meaning is that the graphic signs that force people to make certain actions or take preventive measures are composed of blue. For example, “hard hat must be worn”, “safety belt must be worn”, “ventilation must be”, etc.
(4) Prompt sign: its meaning is a graphic sign that provides people with some kind of information, which is composed of green. For example “Up and down from here!” “In and out from here!” “Work here!” etc.
(5) Fire-fighting sign: its meaning is a graphic sign that provides information on fire-fighting facilities to people, consisting of its red color. For example, fire extinguishers, above-ground fire hydrants, underground fire hydrants, etc.
(6) Other signs: such as guide arrow signs, emergency exit signs, height limit signs, speed limit signs, etc.
- Other tools
Other tools include walkie-talkies, binoculars, wires, screwdrivers (slotted and Phillips), wire cutters, wire strippers, diagonal nose pliers, needle nose pliers, insulated terminal pliers, cable cutters, wrenches, flashlights, etc.
- Management requirements for safety tools
The management level of electrical safety tools is directly related to the personal and equipment safety of enterprises in the production process. In the operation and maintenance of photovoltaic power plants, a small number of enterprises do not pay attention to the management of safety tools, and the measures are not in place or the methods are incorrect, resulting in a series of irregularities in the daily management of safety tools. For example, there is no dedicated electrical insulation tool room, tools are stored randomly, electrical insulation tools have expired or no test at all, unqualified tools are mixed with qualified tools, and the electroscope does not sound an alarm, etc. These phenomena will cause The operation and maintenance personnel use unqualified tools to the operation, maintenance and emergency repair work sites, thus burying huge potential safety hazards, which can easily lead to safety production accidents and even personal injury accidents.
To manage safety tools, the following aspects should be done well
(1) The ledger is standardized and the information is clear.
Carefully inventory all safety tools and equipment, and establish a ledger according to the categories of commonly used electrical insulation tools, climbing tools, lifting tools, etc. The ledger should be able to clearly reflect important information such as the specifications and models of safety tools, manufacturers, and purchase dates, and be updated in a timely manner according to changes in tools, scrapping, and new additions; Persons and custodians, the tabulators, checkers and custodians are responsible for the accuracy of the ledger. The operation and maintenance unit must strictly assess the tabulators, checkers and custodians to ensure that the ledger is consistent with the actual situation. In the event of a personal accident that is directly related to the quality of tools and tools, if the established ledger can accurately and clearly reflect important information such as the specifications, models, manufacturers, and purchase dates of safety tools and tools, we can accurately grasp the safety tools and tools in our unit and timely Stop using or scrap a manufacturer’s tools and tools, and replace or replace them with qualified tools and tools, which can effectively prevent employees from using unqualified tools and tools to overhaul and repair sites, and prevent similar accidents from happening.
(2) Classified storage, seated according to the number.
After the ledger is established according to the categories of tools and tools, special rooms should be set up to store safety tools and tools, and special personnel should be set up to manage them and number them one by one. The numbering should be clear, uniform and not easy to fall off. Reasonable design of storage cabinets, as far as possible to store all kinds of safety tools in an interval, the interval corresponds to the tool number, so that the tool and the interval are seated. This storage method is convenient for custodians to check, and there will be no mixing or stacking (see Figure 1). The corresponding test label of the tool can be affixed to the storage location, and the safety tool can be seated according to the number. When receiving the tool, it is very convenient to see whether the received tool has passed the test and confirmed that it is within the validity period, effectively preventing employees from using expired tools.
(3) Regular test to ensure qualified.
Safety tools must be tested and identified by the National Testing Center and can be used only after passing the test. “Electrical Safety Work Regulations” has strict regulations on the periodic test cycle and test standards of safety tools. For example, electric test pencils, insulating gloves, insulating boots, insulating ropes, etc. require an AC withstand voltage test every 6 months; insulation Rods, insulating baffles, insulating clamps, etc. require an AC withstand voltage test every year; climbing tools (such as seat belts, safety waist ropes, foot buckles, lifting plates, etc.) require a net tensile test every six months. Tested tools should have a test compliance label and test report and be recorded.
The operating unit must strictly implement the provisions of the regular test of safety tools and appliances in accordance with the requirements of the “Electrical Safety Work Regulations”, and should establish a strict periodic test and assessment system for safety tools and appliances, prohibit and seriously deal with the use of expired or untested safety tools. appliance.
(4) Careful maintenance and timely additions
Qualified safety tools are the prerequisite for ensuring safe work, and the maintenance of safety tools is particularly important. To do a good job in the maintenance of tools and appliances, the following four aspects should be done:
1) Strengthen the training of safety tool custodians, so that the custodians are familiar with the inspection methods of tools and tools.
2) All safety tools must be visually inspected in strict accordance with the period stipulated in the “Electrical Safety Work Regulations” and related rules and regulations, and the problems of safety tools should be inspected in time and dealt with accordingly.
3) Before the safety tools are used, the custodian should carefully check the used tools and tools to ensure that the tools and tools are qualified before they can be used by employees, and the receiving personnel should sign for confirmation. After use, the custodian should carefully check the returned tools and tools, and return them to their correct positions if there is no problem.
4) If there are unqualified or defective tools and tools that cannot be used effectively in the daily maintenance, they should be discarded immediately and recorded in the ledger. At the same time, new qualified tools and tools should be added in time to ensure that There are a sufficient number of qualified tools for routine maintenance and repair work.